Fundamentals of nursing : theory, concepts & applications / Judith M. Wilkinson, Karen Van Leuven.

By: Wilkinson, Judith M, 1946-
Contributor(s): Van Leuven, Karen
Material type: TextTextPublisher: Philadelphia : F.A. Davis Co., c2007Description: v. <1 > : col. ill. ; 29 cm. + 1 CD-ROM (4 3/4 in.)ISBN: 0803614713 (2 vol. set); 0803611978 (v. 1); 0803611986 (v. 2)Subject(s): Nursing | Nursing Care | Nursing Process | Nursing TheoryDDC classification: 610.73 Online resources: Table of contents
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CONTENTS:

UNIT 1
How Nurses Think
Chapter 1
Evolution of Nursing Thought and Action
Learning Outcomes
Nurses Make a Difference... Then & Now
Nursing Images Throughout History
Angel of Mercy
Handmaiden
Battle-Ax
Naughty Nurse
Military Image
Nurses on the Battlefield
Nurses Fighting Disease
Caucasian Woman
Full-Spectrum Nurse?
Contemporary Nursing Practice: Education, Regulation, and Organization
How Is Nursing Defined?
International Council of Nurses Definition
Nursing Association Definitions
Is Nursing a Profession, Discipline, or Occupation?
How Do Nurses' Educational Paths Differ?
Formal Education
Practical and Vocational Nursing Education
Registered Nursing Education
Graduate Nursing Education
Other Forms of Education
Informal Education
How Is Nursing Practice Regulated?
What Are Some Important Nursing Organizations?
American and Canadian Nurses Associations
National League for Nursing
International Council of Nursing
National Student Nurses Association
Sigma Theta Tau International
Specialty Organizations
Contemporary Nursing Practice: Caring for Clients
Who Are the Recipients of Nursing Care?
What Are the Purposes of Nursing Care?
Health Promotion
Illness Prevention
Health Restoration
End of Life Care
Where Do Nurses Work?
What Factors Influence Contemporary Nursing Practice?
Trends in Society
Trends in Nursing and Health Care
Increased Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Expanded Variety of Settings for Care
Increased Autonomy and Advanced Practice Roles
Increased Use of Unlicensed Assistive Personnel
Influence of Nurses on Healthcare Policy
Divergence Between High-Tech and High-Touch
Chapter 2
Critical Thinking and the Nursing Process
Learning Outcomes
Explore Your Nursing Role
What Is Your View of Nursing?
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing When and Knowing Why
What Is Critical Thinking?
What Are Critical-Thinking Skills?
What Are Critical-Thinking Attitudes?
Why Is Critical Thinking Important for Nurses?
Nurses Deal with Complex Situations
Clients Are Unique
Nurses Apply Knowledge to Provide Holistic Care
What Are the Different Kinds of Nursing Knowledge?
A Model for Critical Thinking
Practical Knowledge: Knowing What and Knowing How
What Is the Nursing Process?
What Are the Phases of the Nursing Process?
How Is the Nursing Process Related to Critical Thinking?
What Is Full-Spectrum Nursing?
What Are Concepts Are Used in the Model?
How Does the Model Work?

Chapter 3
Nursing Process: Assessment
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patient
Assessment: The First Step of the Nursing Process
How Is Assessment Related to Other Steps of the Nursing Process?
How Does Nursing Assessment Fit into Collaborative Care?
What Do Professional Standards Say About Assessment?
Can I Delegate Assessments?
Sources of Data
Types of Assessment
Initial and Ongoing Assessments
Comprehensive and Focused Assessments
Special Needs Assessments
What Is Included in a Comprehensive Assessment?
Observation
Physical Assessment
The Nursing Interview
What Are the Components of a Nursing Health History?
Types of Interviews
Preparing for the Interview
Preparing Yourself
Preparing the Space
Preparing the Patient
Conducting the Interview
Closing the Interview
How and When Should I Validate Data?
How Can I Organize Data?
Non-Nursing Models
Nursing Models
How Should I Document Data?
Guidelines for Recording Assessment Data
Tools for Recording Assessment Data
Reflecting Critically About Assessment

Chapter 4
Nursing Process: Diagnosis
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patient
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Diagnosis: Second Step of the Nursing Process
What Are the Origins of Nursing Diagnosis?
What Are Health Problems?
Recognizing Nursing Diagnoses
Recognizing Medical Diagnoses
Recognizing Collaborative Problems
Types of Nursing Diagnoses
Actual Nursing Diagnosis: Problem Is Present
Risk Nursing Diagnosis: Problem May Occur
Possible Nursing Diagnosis: Problem May Be Present
Syndrome Nursing Diagnosis: Several Related Problems Are Present
Wellness Diagnosis: No Problem Is Present
What Is Diagnostic Reasoning?
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Identify Significant Data
Cluster Cues
Identify Data Gaps and Inconsistencies
Drawing Conclusions about Health Status
Make Inferences
Identify Problem Etiologies
Verifying Problems with the Patient
Prioritizing Problems
Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs
Problem Urgency
Future Consequences
Patient Preference
Documenting Priorities
Computer-Assisted Diagnosing
Reflecting Critically on Your Diagnostic Reasoning Process
Think About Your Theoretical Knowledge
Think About Your Self Knowledge
Think About Your Analysis and Conclusions
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
How Are Diagnostic Statements Written?
Standardized Nursing Languages
What Is a Taxonomy?
NANDA Taxonomy of Diagnostic Terminology
What Are the Components of a NANDA Nursing Diagnosis?
How Do I Know Which Label to Use?
Formats for Diagnostic Statements
Basic Two-Part Statement
Basic Three-Part Statement
One-Part Statement
Format Variations
"Specify"
"Secondary to"
Two-Part NANDA Label
Adding Words to the NANDA Label
Unknown Etiology
Complex Etiology
Collaborative Problems
How Does the Nursing Diagnosis Relate to Outcomes and Interventions?
The Problem Suggests Goals
The Etiology Suggests Interventions
Reflecting Critically About Diagnostic Statements
Guidelines for Judging the Quality of Diagnostic Statements
Critiquing the NANDA System

Chapter 5
Nursing Process: Planning Outcomes
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patient
What Is Planning?
How Is Planning Related to Other Steps of the Nursing Process?
Initial and Ongoing Planning
Discharge Planning
Discharge Planning Begins at Assessment
Written Discharge Plans
Discharge Planning Requires Collaboration
Nursing Care Plans
Why Is a Written Nursing Care Plan Important?
What Information Does a Comprehensive Nursing Care Plan Contain?
What Documents Make Up a Comprehensive Nursing Care Plan?
Form for Client Profile and Basic Needs
Preprinted, Standardized Plans
Policies and Procedures
Protocols
Unit Standards of Care
Standardized Nursing Care Plans
Critical Pathways
Integrated Plans of Care
Individualized Nursing Care Plans
Special Discharge or Teaching Plans
Computerized Care Plans
Student Care Plans
Mind-Mapping Student Care Plans
What Is the Process for Writing an Individualized Nursing Care Plan?
Planning Patient Goals/Outcomes
What Do the Terms Goal and Outcome Mean?
What Is the Purpose of Goal/Outcome Statements?
How Do I Distinguish Between Short-Term and Long-Term Goals?
What Are the Components of a Goal Statement?
How Do Goals Relate to Nursing Diagnoses?
Essential versus Nonessential Goals
Goals for Actual, Risk, and Possible Nursing Diagnoses
Goals for Collaborative Problems
How Do I Use Standardized Terminology for Outcomes?
What Is the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC)?
Components of a NOC Outcome
Using NOC With Computerized Care Plans
How Do I Write Goals for Groups?
How Do I Write Goals for Wellness Diagnoses?
Outcomes for Special Teaching Plans
Reflecting Critically About Expected Outcomes/Goals

Chapter 6
Nursing Process: Planning Interventions
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patient
What Are Nursing Interventions?
Nursing Interventions Reflect Direct and Indirect Care
Nursing Interventions Include Independent, Dependent, and Collaborative Actions
How Do I Decide Which Interventions to Use?
How Do Theories Influence My Choice of Interventions?
How Does Nursing Research Influence My Choice of Interventions?
Single Studies
Critical Pathways and Protocols
Evidence-Based Practice
Clinical Practice Guidelines
Evidence Reports
How Does Problem Status Influence Nursing Interventions?
What Process Can I Use for Generating and Selecting Interventions?
Review the Nursing Diagnosis
Review the Desired Patient Outcomes
Identify Several Interventions or Actions
Choose the Best Interventions for the Patient
Individualize Standardized Interventions
Computer-Generated Interventions
How Can I Use Standardized Language in Planning Interventions?
What Is the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC)?
Locating Appropriate NIC Interventions and Activities
Using NIC in Computerized Care Plans
Standardized Languages for Home Health and Community Care
Does Standardized Language Interfere with Holistic Care?
What Are Nursing Orders, and How Do I Write Them?
Components of a Nursing Order
Reflecting Critically About the Nursing Orders

Chapter 7
Nursing Process: Implementation and Evaluation
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patients
Implementation: The Action Phase of the Nursing Process
How Is Implementation Related to Other Steps of the Nursing Process?
How Should I Prepare for Implementation?
Check Your Knowledge and Abilities
Organize Your Work
Establish Feedback Points
Prepare Supplies and Equipment
Prepare the Patient
Implementing the Plan: Doing or Delegating
What Knowledge and Skills Do I Need?
How Can I Promote Client Participation and Adherence?
What Should I Know About Coordinating Care?
What Should I Know About Delegation and Supervision?
Right Task?
Right Circumstance?
Right Person?
Right Direction/Communication?
Right Supervision?
Documenting: The Final Step of Implementation
Reflecting Critically About Implementation
Evaluation: The Final Step of the Nursing Process
Why Is Evaluation Essential to Full-Spectrum Nursing?
How Are Standards and Criteria Used in Evaluation?
Types of Evaluation
Evaluation of Structures, Processes, and Outcomes
Ongoing, Intermittent, and Terminal Evaluation
How Is Evaluation Related to Other Steps of the Nursing Process?
How Do I Evaluate Patient Progress?
Review Outcomes
Collect Reassessment Data
Judge Goal Achievement
Record the Evaluative Statement
How Do I Evaluate Collaborative Problems?
Evaluating and Revising the Care Plan
Relate Outcomes to Interventions
Draw Conclusions About Problem Status
Revise the Care Plan
Reflecting Critically About Evaluation
Evaluating the Quality of Care in a Healthcare Setting

Chapter 8
Nursing Theory and Research

Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patient
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Nursing Theory
What Are the Components of a Theory?
Phenomena
Assumptions
Concepts
Definitions
Statements/Propositions
Theory, Framework, Model, or Paradigm?
How Are Theories Developed?
What Are the Essential Concepts of a Nursing Theory?
How Do Nurses Use Theories?
In Practice
In Education
In Research
Who Are Some Important Nurse Theorists?
Florence Nightingale
Virginia Henderson
Hildegarde Peplau
The Caring Theorists
Patricia Benner
Madeleine Leininger
Other Selected Nurse Theorists
How Do Nurses Use Theories from Other Disciplines?
Maslow's Hierarchy of Basic Human Needs
Physiological Needs
Safety and Security Needs
Love and Belonging Needs
Self-Esteem Needs
Self-Actualization Needs
Application of Maslow's Theory
Validation Theory
Stress and Adaptation Theory
Developmental Theories
System Theory

Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Planning Theory-Based Interventions/Implementation
Nursing Research
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
What Is the History of Nursing Research?
How Are Priorities for Nursing Research Developed?
What Educational Preparation Is Necessary to Do Nursing Research?
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
What Is the Scientific Method?
Quantitative Research
Qualitative Research
What Are the Steps of the Research Process?
What Are the Rights of Research Participants?
Informed Consent
Institutional Review Boards
How Can I Help Identify Clinical Nursing Problems?
How Can I Analyze the Research That I Read?
How Do I Find Research Articles Related to My Practice?
What Is Research Utilization?

Unit 2
Factors Affecting Health
Chapter 9
Growth and Development through the Life Span
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patients
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
What Are Growth and Development?
Principles of Growth and Development
Theories of Growth and Development
Developmental Task Theory
Psychoanalytic Theory
Cognitive Development Theory
Psychosocial Development Theory
Moral Development Theory
Spiritual Development Theory
Stages of Growth and Development
The Gestational Period Begins at Conception and Culminates in Birth
Physical Development
Common Health Problems
Assessment
Interventions
The Neonatal Period Is from Birth to 28 Days
Physical Development
Cognitive Development
Psychosocial Development
Common Health Problems
Assessment
Interventions
Infancy Is from 1 Month to 1 Year of Age
Physical Development
Cognitive Development
Psychosocial Development
Common Health Problems
Assessment
Interventions
Toddlerhood Lasts from Age 1 to 3
Physical Development
Cognitive Development
Psychosocial Development
Common Health Problems
Assessment
Interventions
The Preschool Stage Includes 4- and 5-Year-Olds
Physical Development
Cognitive Development
Psychosocial Development
Common Health Problems
Assessment
Interventions
School-Age Children Are 6 to 12 Years Old
Physical Development
Cognitive Development
Psychosocial Development
Common Health Problems
Assessment
Interventions
Adolescence Lasts from Age 12 to 18
Physical Development
Cognitive Development
Psychosocial Development
Common Health Problems
Assessment
Interventions
Young Adulthood Is from Age 19 to 40
Physical Development
Cognitive Development
Psychosocial Development
Common Health Problems
Assessment
Interventions
Middle Adulthood is from Age 40 to 64
Physical Development
Cognitive Development
Psychosocial Development
Common Health Problems
AssessmentInterventions
Older Adulthood Begins at Age 65
Theories of Aging
Physical Development
Cognitive Development
Psychosocial Development
Common Health Problems
Assessment
Interventions
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Putting it All Together

Chapter 10
Experiencing Health and Illness
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patient
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
How Do We Understand Health and Illness?
People Define Health and Illness in Many Different Ways
Nurses Understand Health and Illness as Individual Experiences
Nurses Use Conceptual Models to Understand Health and Illness
The Health-Illness Continuum
Dunn's Health Grid
Neuman's Continuum
How Do People Experience Health and Illness?
Biological Factors
Nutrition
Physical Activity
Sleep and Rest
Meaningful Work
Lifestyle Choices
Family Relationships
Culture
Religion and Spirituality
Environmental Factors
Finances
What Factors Disrupt Health?
Physical Disease
Injury
Mental Illness
Pain
Loss
Impending Death
Competing Demands
The Unknown
Imbalance
Isolation
How Do People Experience Illness?
Stages of Illness Behavior
The Nature of the Illness
Hardiness
Intensity, Duration, and Multiplicity of the Disruption
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Using the Nursing Process to Promote Health
Assessment
Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
How Can I Honor Each Client's Unique Health/Illness Experience?
Examine Life's Uncertainties
Envision Wellness for Your Clients and Yourself
Establish Trust at Your First Patient Contact
Provide a Healing Presence
Is a Healthy Life Attainable?

Chapter 11
Psychosocial Health and Illness
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patient
Psychosocial Health
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
What Is Self Concept?
The "Dynamic Self"
How Is Self Concept Formed?
What Factors Affect a Person's Self Concept?
Gender and Developmental Level
Socioeconomic Status
Family and Peer Relationships
Internal Influences
What Are the Components of Self Concept?
Body Image
Ideal versus Perceived and Actual Body Image
Influence of Appearance and Function on Body Image
Gradual versus Sudden Body Changes
Influence of Body Image on Health
Role Performance
Personal Identity
Self Esteem
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Psychosocial Assessments
Assessing Self Concept and Self Esteem
Nursing Diagnosis
Psychosocial Diagnoses
Self-Concept Diagnoses
Self Concept or Body Image as Problem
Self Concept or Body Image as Etiology
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Psychosocial Outcomes
Self-Concept and Self-Esteem Outcomes
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Preventing Depersonalization
Promoting Self Esteem and Self Concept
Promoting a Positive Body Image
Facilitating Role Enhancement
Psychosocial Illness: Anxiety and Depression
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Anxiety
Levels of Anxiety
Coping with Anxiety
Depression
What Causes Depression?
What Signs and Symptoms Suggest Depression?
How Is Depression Treated?
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Nursing Care for Anxiety
Assessment
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Nursing Care for Depression
Assessment
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation

Chapter 12
The Family
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patient
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
What Is a Family?
Family Structures
Approaches to Family Nursing
What Theories Are Useful for Family Care?
General Systems Theory
H2Structural-Functional Theories
Developmental Theories
What Are Some Family Health Risk Factors?
Childless and Childbearing Couples
Families with Young Children
Families with Adolescents
Families with Middle-Aged Adults
Families with Older Adults
What Are Some Challenges to Family Health?
Poverty and Unemployment
Infectious Diseases
Homelessness
Violence and Neglect Within Families
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Assessing the Family's Health Beliefs
Assessing the Family's Communication Patterns
Assessing the Family's Coping Processes
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes and Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Promoting Family Wellness
Interventions When a Family Member Is Ill
Interventions When There Is a Death in the Family

Chapter 13
Culture and Ethnicity
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patients
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Why Is It Important to Know About Culture and Ethnicity?
What Concepts Are Related to Culture?
Dominant Cultures, Subcultures, and Minority Groups
Vulnerable Populations as Subcultures
Gender as a Subculture
Ethnicity, Race, and Religion
Ethnicity
Race
Religion
Socialization, Acculturation, and Assimilation
How Do Cultural Values, Beliefs, and Practices Affect Health?
What Are Culture Specifics?
How Do Culture Specifics Affect Health?
Communication
Space
Time Orientation
Social Organization
Environmental Control
Biological Variations
Other Culture Specifics
What Is the "Culture of Health Care"?
What Are Health and Illnesses Beliefs?
What Are Health and Illness Practices?
What Is the Culture of the North American Healthcare System?
Nursing and Other Professional Subcultures
Traditional and Alternative Healing
Folk Medicine
Complementary and Alternative Medicine
What Is Culturally Competent Care?
Purnell and Paulanka
Leininger
Campinha-Bacote
What Are Some Barriers to Culturally Competent Care?
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
The Health History
Physical Assessment
Assessing for Pain
Cultural Assessment Models and Tools
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Nursing Strategies for Providing Culturally Competent Care
How Do I Communicate with Clients from Other Cultures?
How Do I Communicate with Clients Who Speak a Different Language?
How Can I Become Culturally Competent?

Chapter 14
Spirituality
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patient
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
History of Spirituality in Nursing
What Are Religion and Spirituality?
What Is Religion?
What Is Spirituality?
Core Issues of Spirituality
Faith
Hope
Love
What Is the Relationship Between Religion and Spirituality
How Might Spiritual Beliefs Affect Health?
Major Religions: What Should I Know?
Judaism
Christianity
Christian Science
Jehovah's Witnesses
Mormonism
Islam
Baha'i
Hinduism
Sikhism
Buddhism
Native American Religions
Rastafarianism
Self-Knowledge: What Every Nurse Should Know
What Are Your Personal Biases?
What Are Some Barriers to Spiritual Care?
Lack of Awareness of Spirituality in General
Lack of Awareness of Own Spiritual Belief System
Differences in Spirituality Between Nurse and Patient
Fear That Knowledge Base Is Insufficient
Fear of Where Spiritual Discussions May Lead
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Spiritual Assessment Tools
Levels of Spiritual Assessment
Sources of Information About Spirituality
Nursing Diagnosis
Diagnoses Related to Spirituality
Other Diagnoses Related to Spirituality
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
What Are Spiritual Intervention?
Prayer
Types of Prayer
Prayer Guidelines For Nurses
Cures, Miracles and Spiritual Healing

Chapter 15
Loss, Grief, and Dying
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patient
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Loss and Grief
What Is Loss?
What Is Grief?
Stages of Grief
William Worden
Theresa Rando
H4John Bowlby
Factors Affecting Grief
Types of Grief
Death and Dying
How Is Death Defined?
What Are the Stages of Dying?
Physiological Stages
Psychological Stages
What Is End-of-Life Care?
Palliative Care
Hospice Care
What Are Some Legal/Ethical Considerations?
Advance Directives
Orders for DNAR
Assisted Suicide
Euthanasia
Autopsy
Organ Donation
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Knowledge Base
History of Loss
Coping Abilities and Support System
Meaning of the Loss/Illness
Physical Assessment
Cultural and Spiritual Assessment
Diagnosis
Loss and Grieving as Problem
Loss and Grieving as Etiology
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Therapeutic Communication
Facilitating Grief Work
Expressing Feelings
Recalling Memories
Finding Meaning
Helping Families of Dying Patients
Care of the Dying Person
Meeting Physiological Needs
Meeting Psychological Needs
Addressing Spiritual Needs
Addressing Cultural Needs
Providing Postmortem Care
Care of the Body
Legal Responsibilities
Helping Families After the Death
Supporting Families Immediately After the Death
Providing Grief Education
Helping Children Deal With Loss
Taking Care of Yourself

Unit 3
Essential Nursing Interventions
Chapter 16
Documenting and Reporting
Learning Outcomes
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Documentation
Why Do Healthcare Providers Use Written Communication?
What Are the Two Main Documentation Systems?
Source-Oriented Records
Problem-Oriented Records
What Are Some Common Types of Charting?
Narrative Charting
SOAP Charting
Focus Charting(r)
Charting by Exception
Which Charting Format Is Best?
What Forms Do Nurses Use to Document Care?
Admission Nursing Database
Flowsheets and Graphic Records
Nursing Assessment Flowsheets
Intake and Output Records
Medication Record
Outpatient Facilities
Inpatient Facilities
Progress Notes
Kardex or Patient Care Summary
Integrated Plans of Care (IPOCs)
Discharge Summary
Occurrence Reports
Computerized Charting
What Is Unique About Documentation in Home Health Care?
What Is Unique About Documentation in Long-Term Care?
Oral Reporting
How Do I Give Change-of-Shift Report?
Change-of-Shift Reporting Methods
Contents of the Change-of-Shift Report
What Are Transfer Reports?
How Do I Receive and Document Telephone Orders and Verbal Orders?
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Guidelines for Documenting Care
When Should I Chart?
What Should I Chart?
How Should I Chart?
Can I Delegate Charting?
How Do I Question a Physician's Order?

Chapter 17
Measuring Vital Signs
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patients
What Are Vital Signs?
When Should I Measure a Patient's Vital Signs?
How Do I Record Vital Signs?
Body Temperature
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
What Is a Normal Temperature?
How Does the Body Regulate Temperature?
How Is Heat Produced in the Body?
How Is Heat Exchanged Between the Body and the Environment?
What Factors Influence Body Temperature?
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Temperature Measurement Scales: Fahrenheit and Centigrade
What Equipment Do I Need?
Glass Thermometers
Electronic Thermometers
Electronic Infrared Tympanic Membrane Thermometers
Disposable Chemical Thermometers
What Sites Should I Use?
Oral Site
Rectal Site
Axillary Site
Tympanic Membrane Site
Assessing Temperature in the Home
What Is Fever?
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
What Is Hypothermia?
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Pulse
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
What Is a Normal Pulse Rate?
How Does the Body Produce and Regulate the Pulse?
What Factors Influence Pulse Rate?
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
What Equipment Do I Need?
What Sites Should I Use?
When Should I Take an Apical Pulse?
When Should I Take an Apical-Radial Pulse?
What Data Should I Collect?
Rate
Rhythm
Quality
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Respiration
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
What Is a Normal Respiratory Rate?
How Does the Body Regulate Respiration?
Mechanics of Breathing
What Factors Influence Respiration?
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
What Equipment Do I Need?
What Data Should I Collect?
Rate
Depth
Rhythm
Effort
Breath Sounds
Chest and Abdomen Movement
Associated Clinical Signs
Arterial Oxygen Saturation
Arterial Blood Gas Sampling
Pulse Oximetry
What Are Some Alterations in Respiration??
Blood Pressure
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
What Is a Normal Blood Pressure Reading?
How Does the Body Regulate Blood Pressure?
Cardiac Function
Peripheral Resistance
Blood Volume
What Factors Influence Blood Pressure?
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
What Equipment Do I Need?
What Cuff Size Should I Use?
Which Site Should I Use?
Auscultating Blood Pressure
Palpating Blood Pressure
Using Palpation with Auscultation
Calculating Proper Inflation Pressure
Recognizing an Auscultatory Gap
What Is Hypotension?
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
What Is Hypertension?
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Putting It All Together
Evaluating Vital Signs
Delegating Vital Signs

Chapter 18
Communicating and the Therapeutic Relationship
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Clients
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
What Is Communication?
Communication Occurs on Three Levels
Communication Involves Both Content and Process
The Content of Communication
The Communication Process
Communication Can Be Verbal or Nonverbal
Verbal Communication
Vocabulary
Denotative and Connotative Meaning
Pacing
Intonation
Clarity and Brevity
Timing and Relevance
Credibility
Humor
Nonverbal communication
Facial Expression
Posture and Gait
Personal Appearance
Distance
Gestures
Touch
What Factors Affect Communication?
Environment
Developmental Variations
Gender
Personal Space
Territoriality
Sociocultural Factors
Roles and Relationships
What Is the Role of Communication in Therapeutic Relationships?
Communication Is Essential to All Phases of the Therapeutic Relationship
Therapeutic Communication Has Five Key Characteristics
Empathy
Respect
Genuineness
Concreteness and Confrontation
Communication Is Also Important in Group Helping Relationships
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Nursing Diagnosis
Etiologies of Communication Diagnoses
Communication as Etiology of Other Nursing Diagnoses
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Enhancing Therapeutic Communication
Active Listening
Establishing Trust
Being Assertive
Restating, Clarifying, and Validating Messages
Interpreting Body Language and Sharing Observations
Exploring Issues
Using Silence
Summarizing the Conversation
Barriers to Therapeutic Communication
Asking Too Many Questions
Asking Why
Changing the Subject Inappropriately
Failing to Listen
Failing to Probe
Expressing Approval or Disapproval
Offering Advice
Providing False Reassurance
Stereotyping
Using Patronizing Language
Using a Translator
Enhancing Communication with Clients with Impaired Hearing
Enhancing Communication with Clients with Impaired Speech
Enhancing Communication with Clients with Cognitive Impairment
Communicating with Unconscious Clients

Chapter 19
Health Assessment: Performing a Physical Examination
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patients
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Physical Examination
What Are the Purposes of a Physical Examination?
How Do I Prepare to Perform a Physical Examination?
Prepare Yourself
Prepare the Environment
Prepare the Client
How Do I Position the Client for a Physical Examination?
What Skills Do I Need to Perform a Physical Examination?
Inspection
Palpation
Percussion
Auscultation
Olfaction
How Do I Modify Assessment for Different Age Groups?
Infants
Toddlers
Preschoolers
School-Age Children
Adolescents
Young and Middle Adults
Older Adults
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
The General Survey
Appearance and Behavior
Body Type and Posture
Speech
Dress, Grooming, and Hygiene
Mental State
Vital Signs
Height and Weight
The Integumentary System
The Skin
Skin Color
Skin Characteristics
Skin Temperature
Skin Moisture
Skin Texture
Skin Turgor
Edema
Skin Lesions
The Hair
The Nails
Nail Color
Nail Shape
Nail Texture
The Head
The Skull and Face
The Eyes
External Structures
Visual Acuity
Distance Vision
Near Vision
Color Vision
Visual Field
Internal Structures
The Ears and Hearing
Examining the External and Middle Ear
Assessing Hearing
The Weber and Rinne Tests
The Romberg Test
The Nose
The Mouth and Oropharynx
The Lips, Buccal Mucosa, and Gingiva
The Teeth
The Tongue
The Hard and Soft Palates and Oropharynx
The Neck
The Thyroid Gland
The Cervical Lymph Nodes
The Breasts and Axillae
The Chest and Lungs
Chest Landmarks
Chest Shape and Size
Breath Sounds
The Cardiovascular System
The Cardiac Cycle
Cardiac Landmarks
Inspection and Palpation of the Heart
Heart Sounds
S1, S2, S3, and S4 Heart Sounds
Murmurs
The Vascular System
The Central Vessels
The Carotid Arteries
The Jugular Veins
The Peripheral Vessels
The Abdomen
The Musculoskeletal System
Body Shape and Symmetry
Balance, Coordination, and Movement
Joint Mobility and Muscle Function
The Neurological System
Cerebral Function
Level of Consciousness
Mental Status and Cognitive Function
Cranial Nerve Function
Reflex Function
Sensory Function
Motor and Cerebellar Function
The Genitourinary System
The Male Genitourinary System
The Female Genitourinary System
External Examination
Internal Examination
The Anus, Rectum, and Prostate
Documenting Physical Assessment Findings

Chapter 20
Promoting Asepsis and Preventing Infection
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Nursing Role Model
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
How Does Infection Occur?
Infections Develop in Response to a Chain of Factors
Infectious Agent
Reservoir
Portal of Exit
Mode of Transmission
Portal of Entry
Susceptible Host
Infections Can Be Classified by Location and Duration
Infections Follow Predictable Stages
What Are the Body's Defenses Against Infection?
Primary Defenses
Secondary Defenses
Tertiary defenses
Humoral Immunity
Cell-Mediated Immunity
How Can the Host Defenses Be Supported?
Nutrition
Hygiene
Rest and Exercise
Stress Reduction
Immunizations
What Factors Increase the Risk for Infection?
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Nursing History
Physical Assessment
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Medical Asepsis
Maintaining a Clean Environment
Maintaining Clean Hands
CDC Tier One: Standard Precautions
CDC Tier Two: Transmission-Based Precautions
Contact Precautions
Droplet Precautions
Airborne Precautions
Protective Isolation
Control of Potentially Contaminated Equipment and Supplies
Supporting the Psychological Needs of Patients in Isolation
Surgical Asepsis
Surgical Attire
Sterile Technique
Sterile Dressing Change
Infection Control for Healthcare Workers
What Should I Do If I Am Exposed to Blood-Borne Pathogens?
What Are My Responsibilities Regarding Infection Control?
What Role Does the Infection Control Nurse Play?
How Can I Minimize the Effects of Bioterrorism and Infectious Outbreaks?

Chapter 21
Promoting Safety
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patients
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
What Factors Affect Safety
Developmental Factors
Individual Risk Factors
What Safety Hazards Are in the Home?
Poisoning
Interventions: Preventing and Treating Poisoning
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Interventions: Preventing and Treating Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Scalds and Burns
Interventions: Preventing Scalds and Burns
Fires
Interventions: Preventing Injury From Fires in the Home
Falls
Interventions: Preventing Falls in the Home
Firearm Injuries
Interventions: Promoting Firearm Safety
Suffocation and Asphyxiation
Interventions: Preventing Suffocation and Asphyxiation
Heimlich Maneuver
Take-Home Toxins
What Safety Hazards Are in the Community?
Motor Vehicle Accidents
Interventions: Preventing Motor Vehicle Accidents
Pathogens
Food-Borne Pathogens
Interventions: Preventing Food Poisoning
Vector-Borne Pathogens
Interventions: Fighting Vectors
Water-Borne Pathogens
Pollution
Interventions to Reduce Pollution
Electrical Storms
Interventions: Preventing Injury From Electrical Storms
What Safety Hazards Are in the Healthcare Facility?
Falls
Interventions: Preventing Falls
Equipment-Related Accidents
Interventions: Preventing Equipment-Related Accidents
Fires and Electrical Hazards
Interventions: Fires and Electrical Hazards
Restraints
Siderails
Ambularm and Bed Alarms
Interventions: Using Restraints Safely
Mercury Poisoning
Interventions: Preventing Mercury Poisoning
Hazards to Healthcare Workers
Back Injury
Needlestick Injury
Radiation Injury
Violence
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Morse Fall Scale
Home Safety Assessment
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Nursing Activities Related to Safety
Which Safety Interventions Can I Delegate?

Chapter 22
Facilitating Hygiene
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patients
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Hygiene and Self-Care
What Factors Influence Hygiene Practices?
How Does Health Status Affect Self-Care Ability?
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Assessing Self-Care Abilities
Nursing Diagnosis
Nursing Diagnoses Related to Self Care
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation (Self Care)
Planning Interventions/Implementation (Self Care)
Types of Scheduled Hygiene Care
Delegating Hygiene Care to Unlicensed Assistive Personnel
Care of the Skin
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Anatomy and Physiology of the Skin
Functions of the Skin
Factors Affecting the Skin
Health Status
Developmental Stage
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment (Skin)
Subjective Data
Objective Data
Nursing Diagnosis (Skin)
Impaired Skin Integrity as Problem
Impaired Skin Integrity as Etiology
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation (Skin)
Planning Interventions/Implementation (Skin)
Rationale for Bathing
Choosing the Type of Bath to Meet Patient Needs
Bed Baths
Perineal Care
Towel Bath
Bag or Packaged Bath
Shower
Tub Bath
Therapeutic Bath
Bathing Patients with Dementia
Back Massage
Care of the Feet
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Developmental Variations
Common Foot Problems and Nursing Implications
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment (Feet)
Subjective Data
Objective Data
Nursing Diagnosis (Feet)
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation (Feet)
Planning Interventions/Implementation (Feet)

Care of the Nails
Assessment (Nails)
Diagnosis (Nails)
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation (Nails)
Planning Interventions/Implementation (Nails)
Oral Hygiene
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Developmental Variations
Risk Factors for Oral Problems
Common Problems of the Mouth
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment (Oral Cavity)
Nursing Diagnosis (Oral Cavity)
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation (Oral Cavity)
Oral Care For Unconscious Patients
Denture Care
Care of the Hair
Assessment (Hair)
Nursing Diagnosis (Hair)
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation (Hair)
Planning Interventions/Implementation (Hair)
Hair Care
Hair Care for African Americans
Shampooing the Hair
Beard and Mustache Care
` Shaving
Care of the Eyes
Assessment (Eyes)
Nursing Diagnosis (Eyes)
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation (Eyes)
Planning Interventions/Implementation (Eyes)
Eye Care for the Unconscious Client
Caring for Eyeglasses and Contact Lenses
Contact Lens Wearing Times
Cleaning and Storing Contact Lenses
Caring for Artificial Eyes
Care of the Ears
Providing Ear Care
Care of Hearing Aids
Care of the Nose
The Client's Environment
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Ventilation
Room Temperature
Noise
Hospital Beds
Mattresses and Linens
Bed Making

Chapter 23
Administering Medications
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patients
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
How Are Drugs Named and Classified?
Drug Names
Drug Classifications
What Mechanisms Promote Drug Quality and Safety?
Drug Listings and Directories
Legal Considerations
Nurse Practice Acts
U.S. Drug Legislation
Canadian Drug Legislation
Regulation of Controlled Substances
Systems for Storing and Distributing Medications
Stock Supply
Unit-Dose System
Automated Dispensing System
Self-Administration
What Is Pharmacokinetics?
What Factors Affect Drug Absorption?
Route of Administration
Solubility of the Drug
Effects of pH and Ionization
Blood Flow to the Area
How Are Drugs Distributed Throughout the Body?
Local Blood Flow
Membrane Permeability
Protein-Binding Capacity
How Are Drugs Metabolized in the Body?
How Are Drugs Excreted from the Body?
Concepts Relevant to Drug Effectiveness
Onset, Peak, and Duration of Action
Therapeutic Range
Biological Half-Life
Concentration of Active Drug at Target Sites
What Factors Affect Pharmacokinetics?
What Is Pharmacokdynamics?
What Are Primary Effects?
What Are Secondary Effects?
Side Effects
Adverse Reactions
Toxic Reactions
Allergic Reactions
Route of Administration
Idiosyncratic Reactions
Cumulative Effect
How Do Medications Interact?
What Should I Know About Drug Abuse or Misuse?
How Do I Measure and Calculate Dosage?
Medication Measurement Systems
Special Measurements: Units and Milliequivalents
Calculating Dosages
What Must I Know About Medication Orders?
What Abbreviations Are Used in Medication Orders?
Types of Medication Orders
How Are Medication Orders Communicated?
What Steps Should I Take If I Think an Order Is Incorrect?
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Nursing Diagnosis
Risk for Injury
Noncompliance
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Ensuring Safe Medication Administration
Three Checks
Six Rights
Other Rights
Administering Oral Medications
Pouring Liquid Medications
Buccal and Sublingual Medications
Enteral (Nasogastric and Gastrostomy) Medications
Special Situations
Medicating Children
Medicating Older Adults
Administering Topical Medications
Skin Applications: Lotions, Creams, and Ointments
Transdermal Medications
Performing Irrigations and Instillations
Ophthalmic Medications
Otic Medications
Nasal Medications
Vaginal Medications
Rectal Medications
Administering Respiratory Inhalations
Types of Nebulizers
Metered-Dose Inhalers
Administering Parenteral Medications
Preparing Injectable Medications
Needles
Syringes
Drawing Up Medications from an Ampule
Drawing Up Medications from a Vial
Reconstituting Medications
Mixing Medications in the Same Syringe
Accounting for Needle "Dead Space"
Preventing Needlestick Injuries
Recapping Contaminated Needles
Recapping Sterile Needles
Administering Parenteral Injections
Minimizing Discomfort
Developmental Considerations
Intradermal Injections
Subcutaneous Injections
Choosing a Subcutaneous Site
Choosing a Subcutaneous Needle
Administering Insulin
Administering Heparin
Intramuscular Injections
Choosing an Intramuscular Site
Choosing an Intramuscular Needle
Z-Track Technique
Ventrogluteal Muscle-Site of Choice
Dorsogluteal Site
Deltoid Site
Vastus Lateralis Site
Rectus Femoris site
Intravenous Medications
Adding Medications to Large-Volume (Primary) Infusions
IV Push Medications
Intermittent Infusion
Volume-Control Infusion Sets
Medication Errors
Why Do Errors Occur?
How Can I Avoid Errors?
What Should I Do If I Commit a Medication Error?

Chapter 24
Teaching Clients
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patient
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Who Are the Learners?
What Are My Teaching Responsibilities?
What Are Some Basic Learning Concepts and Principles?
Learning Occurs in Three Domains
Cognitive Learning
Psychomotor Learning
Affective Learning
Many Factors Affect Client Learning
Motivation
Readiness
Physical Condition
Emotions
Timing
Active Involvement
Feedback
Repetition
Environment
Scheduling the Session
Amount and Complexity of Content
Communication
Special Populations
Developmental Stage
Stages of Cognitive Development
Teaching Children
Cultural Factors
Literacy
Barriers to Teaching andLearning
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Nursing Diagnosis
Deficient Knowledge as Primary Problem
Deficient Knowledge as Etiology
Wellness Diagnoses
Incorrect Uses of Deficient Knowledge
Planning Outcomes
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Creating Teaching Plans
Selecting NIC Interventions
Selecting Teaching Strategies
Lecture
Group Discussion
Demonstration and Return Demonstration
One-to-One Instruction
Printed Materials
Audiovisual Materials
Programmed Instruction
Simulation
Self-Instruction
Distance Learning
List Serves and Web Sites
Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)
Gaming
Role-Playing
Role Modeling
Evaluation of Learning
Documentation of Teaching and Learning

Chapter 25
Stress and Adaptation
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patients
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
What Is Stress?
Types of Stressors
Models of Stress
How Do Coping and Adaptation Relate to Stress?
Three Approaches to Coping Are Commonly Used
The Outcome of Stress Is Either Adaptation or Disease
Personal Factors Influence Adaptation
How Do People Respond to Stressors?
The General Adaptation Syndrome Includes Nonspecific, Systemic Responses
The Alarm Stage
Endocrine System Responses
Sympathetic Nervous System Responses
Other Body System Responses in the Alarm Stage
The Resistance Stage
The Exhaustion or Recovery Stage
The Local Adaptation Syndrome Involves a Specific, Local Response
Reflex Pain Response
Inflammatory Response
Psychological Responses to Stress Include Feelings, Thoughts, and Behaviors
Anxiety and Fear
Ego Defense Mechanisms
Anger and Depression
Spiritual Responses to Stress Are Multifaceted
What Happens When Adaptation Fails?
Stress-Induced Organic Responses
Somatoform Disorders
Stress-Induced Psychological Disorders
Crisis
Burnout
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Assess Stressors and Risk Factors
Assess Coping Methods and Adaptation
Assess Responses to Stress
Assessing Physiological Responses
Assessing Emotional and Behavioral Responses
Assessing Cognitive Responses
Assessing Support Systems
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Health Promotion Activities
Nutrition
Exercise
Sleep and Rest
Leisure Activities
Time Management
Avoiding Maladaptive Behaviors
Relieving Anxiety
Anger Management
Stress Management Techniques
Changing Perception of Stressors or Self
Identifying and Using Support Systems
Providing Spiritual Support
Crisis Intervention
Stress Management in the Workplace
Making Referrals

Chapter 26
Nutrition
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patients
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
What Are the Energy Nutrients?
Carbohydrates
Types and Sources of Carbohydrates
Functions of Carbohydrates
Proteins
Types and Sources of Proteins
Functions of Proteins
Protein Metabolism and Storage
Lipids
Types and Sources of Lipids
Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Essential and Nonessential Fatty Acids
Functions of Lipids
What Are the Micronutrients?
Vitamins
Minerals
Why Is Water an Essential Nutrient?
What Are Some Reliable Sources of Nutrition Information?
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)
USDA Dietary Guidelines
Canada's Food Guide for Healthy Eating
USDA Food Guide Pyramid
Nutrition Facts Panels
What Must I Know About Energy Balance?
What Is Basal Metabolic Rate?
Factors Affecting Basal Metabolic Rate
How Do I Calculate a Client's Total Energy Needs?
What Are Some Body Weight Standards?
What Factors Affect Nutrition?
Developmental Stage
Infants to One Year
Toddlers and Preschoolers
School-Age Children
Adolescents
Adults
Pregnant and Lactating Women
Older Adults
Educational Level and Nutritional Knowledge
`Lifestyle Choices
Vegetarianism
Dieting for Weight Loss
Ethnicity, Culture, and Religious Practices
Disease Processes and Functional Limitations
What Are Special Diets?
Regular Diet
NPO
Diets Modified by Consistency
Diets Modified for Disease

Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
How Do I Screen Clients for Nutritional Problems?
How Can I Assess Body Composition?
Skinfold Measurement
Circumferences
Body Mass Index
Imaging Techniques
Underwater Weighing
What Physical Examination Findings Are Cues to Nutrient Imbalance?
What Are the Signs of Severe Malnutrition?
What Laboratory Values Indicate Nutritional Status?
Blood Glucose
Serum Protein Levels and Indices
Delegating Nutritional Assessment
Nursing Diagnosis
Nutrition as the Problem
Nutrition as the Etiology
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation
NIC Intervention-Nutritional Counseling
Nutritious Foods on a Limited Budget
NIC Intervention-Teaching: Individual
Supporting Special Nutritional Needs
Impaired Swallowing
Patients Who Are NPO
Older Adults
Assisting Patients with Meals
What Are Overweight and Obesity?
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Interventions/Implementation
What Are Underweight and Malnutrition?
Nursing Diagnosis
Outcomes/Evaluation
Interventions/Implementation
Improving the Patient's Appetite
Alternative Feeding Methods
What Is Enteral Nutrition?
Types of Feeding Tubes
Checking Feeding Tube Placement
Administering Enteral Feedings
Feedings May Be Continuous, Cyclic, or Intermittent
Feeding Systems May Be Open or Closed
Monitoring Patients Receiving Enteral Nutrition
Removing Feeding Tubes
What Is Parenteral Nutrition?
Chapter 27
Urinary Elimination
Meet Your Patient
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
How Does the Urinary System Work?
The Kidneys Filter and Regulate
The Nephrons Form Urine
Glomerular Filtration
Tubular Reabsorption
Tubular Secretion
The Ureters Transport Urine
The Urinary Bladder Stores Urine
The Urethra Transports Urine
How Does Urinary Elimination Occur?
Normal Urination Patterns
Characteristics of Normal Urine
What Factors Affect Urinary Elimination?
Developmental Factors
Infants and Children
Older Adults
Personal, Sociocultural, and Environmental Factors
Nutrition, Hydration, and Activity Level
Medications
Surgery and Anesthesia
Pathological Conditions
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Nursing History
Physical Assessment
Assessing the Urine
Measuring Urine Output
Voided Urine
Urine from a Catheter
Obtaining Samples for Urine Studies
Freshly Voided Specimen
Clean-Catch Specimen
Sterile Urine Specimen
24-Hour Urine Collection
Routine Urinalysis
Bedside Testing (Dipstick)
Specific Gravity
Blood Studies
Common Diagnostic Procedures
Nursing Diagnosis
Urinary Tract Infections
Risk Factors for Urinary Tract Infection
Recognizing and Treating Urinary Tract Infections
Urinary Retention
Urinary Incontinence
Types of Urinary Incontinence
Treatments for Urinary Incontinence
Conditions Requiring Urinary Diversions
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Promoting Normal Urination
Provide Privacy
Assist with Positioning
Facilitate Toileting Routines
Promote Adequate Fluids and Nutrition
Assist with Hygiene
Teaching Prevention of Urinary Tract Infection
Managing Urinary Retention
Catheterization
Types of Catheters
Supplies for Catheterization
Urinary Catheter Insertion
Caring for the Patient with an Indwelling Catheter
Catheter and Bladder Irrigation
Removing an Indwelling Catheter
Managing Urinary Incontinence
Perineal Skin Care
Behavioral Interventions
Anti-incontinence Devices
Pharmacological and Surgical Interventions
Managing Enuresis
Caring for a Patient With a Urinary Diversion
Care Plan and Care Map

Chapter 28
Bowel Elimination
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patient
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
What Are the Anatomical Structures of the Gastrointestinal Tract?
The Mouth
The Esophagus
The Stomach
The Small Intestine
The Large Intestine
The Rectum and Anus
How Does the Bowel Eliminate Waste?
The Process of Defecation
Normal Defecation Patterns
What Factors Affect Bowel Elimination?
Developmental Stage
Personal, Sociocultural, and Environmental Factors
Nutrition, Hydration, and Activity Level
Medications and Procedures
Pregnancy
Pathological Conditions
Bowel Diversions
Ileostomy
Colostomy
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Nursing History
Physical Assessment
Diagnostic Tests
Direct Visualization Studies
Indirect Visualization Studies
Laboratory Studies
Handling Stool Specimens
Fecal Occult Blood Test
Assessing for Pinworms
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Promoting Normal or Regular Defecation
Privacy
Positioning
Timing of Defecation
Fluids and Nutrition
Exercise
Managing Diarrhea
Managing Constipation
Managing Fecal Impaction
Enemas
Types of Enemas
Cleansing Enemas
Retention Enemas
Return-Flow Enemas
Administering An Enema
Digital Removal of Stool
Managing Flatulence
Managing Bowel Incontinence
Fecal Incontinence Pouch
Bowel Training
Caring for a Patient With a Bowel Diversion
Assessing a Stoma
Nursing Interventions
Living with an Ostomy
Colostomy Irrigation
Chapter 29
Sensory Perception
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patients

Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Components of the Sensory Experience
Reception
Perception
Arousal Mechanism
Responding to Sensations
Factors Affecting Sensory Function
Developmental Variations
Culture
Illness and Medications
Stress
Personality and Lifestyle
Sensory Alterations
Sensory Deprivation
Sensory Overload
Sensory Deficits
Impaired Vision
Impaired Hearing
Impaired Taste
Impaired Smell
Impaired Tactile Perception
Impaired Kinesthetic Sense
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Nursing History
Assess Changes in Sensory Function
Assess Risk Factors for Impaired Sensory Perception
Assess Mental Status
Assess Use of Sensory Aids
Assess the Environment
Assess the Support Network
Physical Examination
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Promoting Optimal Sensory Function
Preventing Sensory Deprivation
Preventing Sensory Overload
Caring for Patients with Sensory Deficits
Interventions for Disturbed Sensory Perception (Visual)
Interventions for Disturbed Sensory Perception (Auditory) Supporting Auditory Function
Improving Communication
Promoting Safety
Interventions for Disturbed Sensory Perception (Olfactory)
Interventions for Disturbed Sensory Perception (Gustatory)
Interventions for Disturbed Sensory Perception (Tactile)
Interventions for Confused Clients
Interventions for Unconscious Clients
Chapter 30
Pain Management
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patient
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
What Is Pain?
Origin of Pain
Cause of Pain
Duration of Pain
Quality of Pain
What Happens When Someone Has Pain?
Transduction
Transmission
Pain Perception
Pain Modulation
What Factors Influence Pain?
Emotions
Developmental Stage
Sociocultural Factors
Communication and Cognitive Impairments
How Does the Body React to Pain?
Unrelieved Pain
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Pain, the Fifth Vital Sign
Assessing Pain in Children
How Do I Assess for Nonverbal Signs of Pain?
How Do I Use Pain Scales?
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Nonpharmacological Pain Relief Measures
Cutaneous Stimulation
Immobilization
Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions
Pharmacological Pain Relief Measures
Nonopioid Analgesics
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
Acetaminophen
Opioid Analgesics
Sedation with Opioid Therapy
Mu Agonists
Agonist-Antagonists
Routes of Administration for Opioid Analgesics
Equianalgesia
Adjuvant Analgesics
Chemical Pain Relief Measures
Surgical Interruption of Pain Conduction Pathways
Misconceptions That Interfere with Pain Management
Managing Pain in Older Patients
Managing Pain in Patients with Substance Abuse or Active Addiction
Pain Relief from Placebos
Teaching the Patient and Family About Pain
Documentation
Evaluation
Nursing Process in Action

Chapter 31
Activity & Exercise
Learning Objectives
Meet Your Patients
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Physiology of Movement
Skeletal System
Muscles
Nervous System
Body Mechanics
Body Alignment
Balance
Coordination
Joint Mobility
Body Mechanics Guidelines
Exercise
Types of Exercise
Exercise Program Guidelines
Benefits of Regular Exercise
Risks Associated with Exercise
Factors Affecting Mobility and Activity
Developmental Stage
Nutrition
Lifestyle
Stress
External Factors
Diseases and Abnormalities
Congenital Abnormalities of the Musculoskeletal System
Diseases Related to Bone Formation or Metabolism
Diseases Affecting Joint Mobility
Problems Affecting Bone Integrity
Trauma
Disorders of the Central Nervous System
Diseases of Other Body Systems
Hazards of Immobility
Effect of Immobility on Muscles
Effects of Immobility on the Lungs
Effect of Immobility on the Heart and Vessels
Effects of Immobility on Metabolism
Effects of Immobility on the Integument
Effects of Immobility on the Gastrointestinal System
Effects of Immobility on the Genitourinary System
Psychological Effects of Imobillity
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Nursing History
Physical Assessment
Body Alignment
Joint Function
Gait
Activity Tolerance
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Promoting Exercise
Preventing Injury from Exercise
Positioning Patients
Positioning Devices
Adjustable Beds
Pillows
Side Rails
Trapeze bar
Footboard
Other Positioning Devices
Positioning Techniques
Fowler's Positions
Lateral Positions
Prone Position
Sims' Position
Supine Position
Moving Patients in Bed
Moving Up in Bed
Turning in Bed
Logrolling
Friction-Reducing Devices
Transferring Patients Out of Bed
Transfer Board
Mechanical Lift
Transfer Belt
Performing Range-of-Motion Exercises
Assisting with Ambulation
Physical Conditioning
Assisting the Patient to Walk
Mechanical Aids for Walking
Canes
Walkers
Braces
Crutches
Working with the Physical Therapist and Occupational Therapist

Chapter 32
Sexual Health
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patients
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Sexual and Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology
Female Reproductive Organs
The Menstrual Cycle
Male Reproductive Organs
Sexuality
What Is Gender?
Gender Roles
Gender Identity
What Is Sexual Orientation?
How Does Sexuality Develop?
Birth Through Preschool
School Age
Adolescents
Young Adults
Middle Aduilts
Aging Adults
What Factors Affect Sexuality?
Culture
Religion
Lifestyle
Sexual Knowledge
Health and Illness
Physical Illness
Psychiatric Disorders
Medications and Other Drugs
Sexual Health
What Is the Sexual Response Cycle?
Desire
Excitement
Plateau
Orgasm
Resolution
What Are Some Forms of Sexual Expression?
Developing Intimate Relationships
Fantasies and Erotic Dreams
Masturbation
Shared Touching
Sexual Intercourse
Oral-Genital Stimulation
Anal Stimulation or Anal Intercourse
Celibacy
What Problems Affect Sexuality?
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Dysmenorrhea
Premenstrual Syndrome
Negative Intimate Relationships
Sexual Harassment
Rape
Sexual Response Cycle Disorders
Low Libido
Arousal Disorders
Orgasmic Disorders
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Sexual History
Tips for Taking a Sexual History
Physical Examination
Nursing Diagnosis
Etiologies of Sexuality Diagnoses
Sexuality Problems as Etiologies of Other Diagnoses
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Teaching About Sexual Health
Body Function and Reproduction
Douching
Menstruation
Premenstrual Syndrome
Menopause
Self-Examination
Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections
Contraception
Counseling for Sexual Problems
Dealing with Inappropriate Sexual Behavior
Putting It All Together


Chapter 33
Sleep & Rest
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patient
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Why Do We Need to Sleep?
How Much Sleep Do We Need?
Physiology of Sleep
How Do Circadian Rhythms Influence Sleep?
How Is Sleep Regulated?
What Are the Stages of Sleep?
NREM Sleep Stages
REM Sleep (Stage V)
Sleep Cycles
What Factors Affect Sleep?
Age
Children and Adolescents
Young Adults
Middle-Aged and Older Adults
Lifestyle Factors
Illness
Environmental Factors
What Are Some Common Sleep Disorders?
Insomnia
Sleep-Wake Schedule (Circadian) Disorders
Restless Leg Syndrome
Sleep Deprivation
Hypersomnia
Sleep Apnea
Snoring
Narcolepsy
Parasomnias
Secondary Sleep Disorders
Disorders That Are Provoked by Sleep
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Nursing Diagnosis
Sleep as the Problem
Sleep Pattern as an Etiology
Sleep Pattern as a Symptom
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Schedule Nursing Care To Avoid Interrupting Sleep
Create A Restful Environment
Promote Comfort
Support Bedtime Rituals and Routines
Offer Appropriate Bedtime Snacks or Beverages
Promote Relaxation
Maintain Patient Safety
Teach About Sleep Hygiene
Administer and Teach About Medications to Produce Sleep
Prescription Sleep Medications
Nonprescription Sleep Medications
Putting It All Together

Chapter 34
Skin Integrity & Wound Healing
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patient
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Factors Affecting Skin Integrity
Age-Related Variations
Impaired Mobility
Nutrition and Hydration
Diminished Sensation
Impaired Circulation
Medications
Moisture on the Skin
Fever
Contamination or Infection
Lifestyle
Wounds
Types of Wounds
Wound Healing Process
The Inflammatory Phase-Cleansing
The Proliferative Phase-Granulation
The Maturation Phase-Epithelialization
Wound Closures
Collaborative Wound Treatments
Types of Wound Drainage
Complications of Wound Healing
Hemorrhage
Infection
Dehiscence
Evisceration
Fistulas
Pressure Ulcers
Pressure Ulcer Development
Staging of Pressure Ulcers
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Nursing History
Risk Assessment Measures
Physical Examination
Assessing Wounds
Assessing Untreated Wounds
Assessing Pressure Ulcers
Laboratory Data
What Assessments Can I Delegate?
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Preventing Pressure Ulcers
Providing Skin Care
Providing Nutrition
Frequent Positioning
Therapeutic Mattresses and Cushions
Patient and Family Teaching
Providing Wound Care
Cleansing Wounds
Irrigating Wounds
Caring for Wounds with Drainage Devices
Types of Drains
Nursing Activities for Maintaining Drains
Debriding a Wound
Sharp Debridement
Mechanical Debridement
Enzymatic Debridement
Autolysis
Applying Wound Dressings
Gauze Dressings
Transparent Films
Hydrocolloids
Hydrogels
Absorption Dressings
Securing Dressings
Controlling Infection
Supporting and Immobilizing Wounds
Binders
Bandages
Techniques for Applying Roller Bandages
Applying Heat and Cold Therapy
Safety Measure
Applying Heat Therapy
Moist Heat
Dry Heat
Applying Cold Therapy

Chapter 35
Oxygenation
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patients
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
The Pulmonary System
What Are the Structures of the Airway?
What Are the Structures of the Lungs?
What Are the Functions of the Pulmonary System?
Pulmonary Ventilation
Respiration (Gas Exchange)
External Respiration: Alveolar-Capillary Gas Exchange
Internal Respiration: Capillary-Tissue Gas Exchange
How Is Breathing Controlled?
The Cardiovascular System
What Are the Structures of the Cardiovascular System?
The Heart
Systemic and Pulmonary Blood Vessels
The Coronary Arteries
How Are Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transported?
How Is Cardiovascular Function Regulated?
Autonomic Nervous System
Brain Stem Centers
What Factors Influence Oxygenation?
Developmental Stage
Infants
Toddlers
Preschool and School-Age Children
Adolescents
Young and Middle Adults
Older Adults
Environment
Stress
Allergic Reactions
Air Quality
Altitude
Heat and Cold
Lifestyle
Pregnancy
Occupational Hazards
Nutrition
Obesity
Exercise
Smoking
Substance Abuse
Medications
Respiratory Effects
Cardiovascular Effects
Pathophysiological Conditions
Pulmonary System Abnormalities
Pulmonary Circulation Abnormalities
Neuromuscular Abnormalities
Cardiovascular System Abnormalities
Peripheral Vascular Abnormalities
Oxygen Transport Abnormalities
Metabolism Extremes and Oxygen Demand
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Assessing Risk for Impaired Oxygenation
Physical Examination
Breathing Patterns
Cough
Respiratory Effort
Pulse Oximetry
Diagnostic Testing
Skin Testing
Arterial Blood Gases
Measuring Arterial Blood Oxygen
Measuring Arterial Blood Carbon Dioxide
Peak Flow Monitoring
Cardiac Monitoring
Twelve-Lead Electrocardiogram
Nursing Diagnosis
Problems of Ventilation and Gas Exchange
Problems of Circulation
Impaired Oxygenation as Etiology
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Intervations/Implementation
Promoting Optimal Respiratory Function
Perform Immunizations and Screening
Prevent Upper Respiratory Infections
Position for Maximum Ventilation
Teach and Assist with Incentive Spirometry
Take Aspiration Precautions
Mobilizing Secretions
Teach Deep Breathing and Coughing
Maintain Hydration
Perform Chest Physiotherapy
Supplying Oxygen Therapy
Oxygen Hazards
Using Artificial Airways
Pharyngeal Airways
Endotracheal Airways
Suctioning Airways
Oropharyngeal and Nasopharyngeal Suctioning
Orotracheal and Nasotracheal Suctioning
Caring for a Patient on a Mechanical Ventilator
Caring for a Patient Requiring Chest Tubes
Monitor Breathing, Gas Exchange, and Drainage
Maintain Drainage System
Promote Lung Reexpansion
Prevent Complications or Intervene
Promoting Circulation
Promote Venous Return
Prevent Clot Formation
Administering Medications
Respiratory Medications
Cardiovascular Medications
Performing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

Chapter 36
Fluids, Electrolytes, and Acid-Base Balance
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patients
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Body Fluids
What Are the Body Fluids Compartments?
What Electrolytes Are Present in Body Fluids?
How Do Fluids and Electrolytes Move in the Body?
Osmosis
Diffusion
Filtration
Active Transport
How Does the Body Regulate Fluids?
Fluid Intake
Fluid Output
Hormonal Regulation
How Does the Body Regulate Electrolytes?
Sodium (Na+)
Potassium (K+)
Calcium (Ca2+)
Magnesium (Mg2+)
Chloride (Cl-)
Phosphate (PO4-)
Bicarbonate (HCO3-)
How Is Acid-Base Balance Regulated?
Buffers
Respiratory Mechanisms
Renal Mechanisms
Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Imbalances
Fluid Imbalances
What Is Fluid Volume Deficit?
What Is Fluid Volume Excess?
Electrolyte Imbalances
Acid-Base Imbalances
Interpreting ABGs
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Nursing History
Physical Assessment
Vital Signs
Daily Weights
Fluid Intake and Output
Laboratory Studies
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Preventing Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances
Dietary Changes
Oral Electrolyte Supplements
Modifying Oral Fluid Intake
Facilitating Fluid Intake
Facilitating Fluid Restriction
Parenteral Replacement of Fluids and Electrolytes
Types of Solutions
Vascular Access Devices
Peripheral Access Devices
Peripheral Intravenous Lock
Central Venous Access Devices
Starting an Intravenous Infusion
Obtain Equipment and Supplies
Select a Peripheral Intravenous Site
Perform Venipuncture
Regulating and Maintaining an Intravenous Infusion
Gravity Flow
Volume-Control Set
Infusion Pump
Calculating Flow Rates
Managing Multiple Lines
Complications of Intravenous Therapy
Changing Intravenous Solutions, Tubing, and Dressings
Converting to a Peripheral Intravenous Lock
Discontinuing an Intravenous Line
Replacement of Blood and Blood Products
Blood Groups

Blood Products
Initiating a Transfusion
Transfusion Reactions
Chapter 37

Perioperative Nursing
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patient
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Preoperative Care
How Can Surgeries Be Classified?
By Body System
By Purpose
By Degree of Urgency
By Degree of Risk
What Factors Affect Surgical Risk?
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Perioperative Nursing Data Set (PNDS)
Assessment
Nursing History
Physical Assessment
Diagnostic Testing
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Confirm That Surgical Consent Has Been Obtained
Provide Preoperative Teaching
What to Teach
How to Teach
When to Teach
Prepare the Patient Physically for Surgery
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Intraoperative Care
Operative Personnel
Sterile Team
Clean Team
Types of Anesthesia
General Anesthesia
Conscious Sedation
Regional Anesthesia
Local Anesthesia
Nerve Block
Spinal Anesthesia
Epidural Anesthesia
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Skin Preparation
Positioning
Intraoperative Safety Measures
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Postoperative Care
Recovery from Anesthesia
Recovery from Surgery
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Nursing Care in the Postanesthesia Care Unit
Postoperative Care on the Surgical Unit
Assessment
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Postoperative Teaching
Sequential Compression Device (SCD)
Incentive Spirometry
Chapter 38
Leading and Managing
What Is Leadership?
Leadership Theories
Trait Theories
Behavioral Theories
Task-Relationship Theories
Situational Theories
Transformational Theories
What Is Management?
Management Theories
Scientific Management
Human Relations-Oriented Management
Qualities of an Effective Manager
Activities of an Effective Manager
Getting Ready to Become a Leader and Manager
Mentors and Preceptors
How Will This Change as I Grow in My Nursing Career
What Is Followership?
Characteristics of Effective Followers
What Are the Challenges to Being an Effective Leader and Manager?
Economic Climate of Health Care
Nursing Labor Market
What Are Power and Empowerment?
Sources of Power
Sources of Empowerment
Enhancing Expertise
Sharing Expertise
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Communicating
Delegating
What if I Lack the Experience to Delegate?
What Are the Concerns About Delegating?
Managing Change
The Comfort Zone
Resistance to Change
Recognizing Resistance
Lowering Resistance
Implementing the Change
Integrating the Change
Conflict
Conflicts Occur at all Levels
"Win-Win" Resolutons
Conflict Resolution
Informal Negotiation
Time Management
Setting Your Own Goals
Organizing Your Work
Summary
Putting it all Together

Chapter 39
Nursing Informatics

Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Nurse Role Model
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
What Is Nursing Informatics?
Data
Information
Knowledge
Wisdom
Understanding Computers and Connectivity
How Do Computers Work?
Pretest: Computers
What Are Some Different Types of Connectivity?
What Are Some Electronic Forms of Communication?
Telephone
Videoconferencing
Facsimile
Electronic Mail
Listserv
Telehealth
The Role of Informatics in Nursing Practice
Why Are Computers Important for Evidence-Based Practice?
What Are the Benefits of an Electronic Health Record?
Why Are Standardized Nursing Languages Needed for ESRs??
How Does Automation Decrease Error in Healthcare?
How Can I Use Electronic Health Records Ethically?
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Using Informatics to Support Evidence-Based Practice
How Do Computers Reduce Barriers to Evidence-Based Practice?
How Do I Use Computers to Search Literature?
Online Sources of Nursing Research
Literature Databases
How Do I Evaluate Evidence and Determine a Solution?

Chapter 40
Holistic Healing
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patient
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Holism
What Is Holistic Health Care?
The Placebo Response
Spirituality and Holism
What Is a Holistic Patient?
What Is Holistic Nursing?
Holistic Theory
Holistic Concepts
What Healing Modalities Are Commonly Used?
Alternative Medical Systems
Ayurveda
Traditional Chinese Medicine
Acupuncture
Homeopathy
Naturopathy
Mind-Body Interventions
Prayer
Meditation
Imagery
Humor
Yoga
Hypnosis
Biofeedback
Biologically Based Therapies
Dietary Therapies
Herbs
Vitamins
Aromatherapy
Manipulative and Body-Based Methods
Chiropractic
Massage
Osteopathy
Energy Therapies
Therapeutic Touch
T'ai Chi and Qigong
Reiki
Magnet Therapy
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation

Chapter 41
Promoting Health
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patients
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
What Is Health Promotion?
Health Promotion versus Health Protection
Levels of Prevention
Healthy People 2010
Health Promotion Models
Pender's Health Promotion Model
Wheels of Wellness
Model of Change
Health Promotion Programs
Settings for Health Promotion Programs
Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
History and Physical Examination
Physical Fitness Assessment
Lifestyle and Risk Appraisal
Life Stress Review
Health Beliefs
Nutritional Assessment
Health Screening Activities
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Role Modeling
Providing Counseling
Individual Sessions
Telephone Counseling
Providing Health Education
Providing and Facilitating Support for Lifestyle Change

Chapter 42
Community Nursing
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patient
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Understanding Communities
What Are the Components of a Community?
What Makes a Community Healthy?
What Makes a Community Vulnerable?
Understanding Community Nursing
Community-Based Care
Community Health Nursing
Public Health Nursing
Community-Oriented Nursing
Who Were Some Pioneers of Community Nursing?
Working Within Communities
What Are Roles of Community Nursing?
How Are Community Nursing Interventions Classified?
Primary Interventions
Secondary Interventions
Tertiary Interventions
What Career Opportunities Are Available for Community Nurses?
School Nursing
Occupational Health
Parish Nursing
Nursing in Correctional Facilities
Public Health Clinics
Disaster Services Nursing
International Nursing
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Assessment
Nursing Diagnosis
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Putting It All Together

Chapter 43
Nursing in Home Care
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patient
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
What Is Home Health Care?
Goals of Home Health Care
Advantages and Disadvantages
Who Provides Home Health Care?
Home Health Agencies
The Home Health Team
The Home Health Nurse
Hospice Nurses
Home Health Reimbursement
What Is the Future of Home Health Care?
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
How Are Clients Referred to Home Health Care?
How Do I Make a Home Visit?
Before the Visit
Supplies
Safety Considerations
At the Visit
Assessment
Nursing Diagnosis
Caregiver Role Strain
Standardized Terminology for Nursing Diagnoses
Planning Outcomes/Evaluation
Planning Interventions/Implementation
Infection Control in the Home
After the Visit

Chapter 44
Ethics and Values
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Patients
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowing Why
Ethics and Morals
How Are Morals Developed?
What Is Nursing Ethics?
Why Should Nurses Study Ethics?
What Is Ethical Agency?
Moral Distress
Whistleblowing
What Are Some Sources of Ethical Problems for Nurses?
Societal Factors
The Nature of Nursing Work
The Nature of the Nursing Profession.
What Factors Affect Moral Decisions?
Values, Attitudes and Beliefs
Professional Versus Personal Values
How Are Values Transmitted?
What is Value Neutrality?
How Are Values, Morals, and Ethics Related?
Moral Principles
Autonomy
Nonmaleficence
Beneficence
Fidelity
Veracity
Justice
Moral Frameworks
What Is Consequentialism?
What Is Deontology?
What Do We Mean by Feminist Ethics?
What Do We Mean by the Ethics-of-Care?
Professional Guidelines
Nursing Codes of Ethics
International Council of Nurses
American Nurses Association
Canadian Nurses Association
ANA Standards of Care
The Patient Care Partnership
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
Ethical Issues in Health Care
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
Values Clarification
How Can I Clarify My Values?
How Can I Help Clients to Clarify Their Values?
Ethical Decision Making
Problem or Dilemma?
What Are Some Decision-Making Models?
Recognizing an Ethical Problem
How Do I Work Through an Ethical Problem?
Use Problem Solving
Use the MORAL Model
M-Massage the Dilemma
O-Outline the Options
R-Resolve the Dilemma
A-Act by Applying the Chosen Option
L-Look Back and Evaluate
Use the Notion of Compromise
What Are My Obligations in Ethical Decisions?
Use and Participate in Institutional Ethics Committees?
Improve your Ethical Decision Making
Be a Patient Advocate
Chapter 45

Legal Issues
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Nurse Role Model
Theoretical Knowledge; Knowing Why
What Are the Sources of Law?
What Laws and Regulations Guide Nursing Practice?
Federal Laws
The Bill of Rights
Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA)
The Health Care Quality Improvement Act of 1986 (HCQIA)
The Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA)
The Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA)
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) "Privacy Rule"
The Newborns' and Mothers' Health Protection Act of 1996 (NMHPA)
The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (NLRA)
State Laws
Mandatory Reporting Laws
Good Samaritan Laws
Nurse Practice Acts
Credentialing
Licensing
Disciplinary Proceedings
Standards of Practice
Other Guidelines for practice
Institutional Policies and Procedures
Nursing Codes of Ethics
The Patient Care Partnership
The ANA Bill of Rights for Nurses
What Is Criminal Law?
What Is Civil Law?
Contract Law
Tort Law
What Are Quasi-Intentional Torts?
What Are Intentional Torts?
Assault and Battery
False Imprisonment
Fraud
Invasion of Privacy
What Are Negligence and Malpractice?
Elements of Malpractice Liability
The Nurse as a Witness
Vicarious Liability
Litigation in Civil Claims
Practical Knowledge: Knowing How
What Are the Most Common Malpractice Claims?
Failure to Assess and Diagnose
Failure to Plan
Failure to Implement a Plan of Care
Failure to Evaluate
How Can You Minimize Your Malpractice Risk?
Observe Mandatory Standards of Care
Use Nursing Process and Follow Professional Standards of Care
Avoid Medication and Treatment Errors
Report and Document
Charting
Incident Reports
Obtain Informed Consent
Elements of Consent
Nurse's Role
Attend to Patient Safety
Maintain Confidentiality and Privacy
Provide Education and Counseling
Assign, Delegate, and Supervise According to Guidelines
Accept Assignments for Which You Are Qualified
Participate in Continuing Education
Observe Professional Boundaries
Observe Mandatory Reporting Regulations
Impaired Nurses
Unauthorized Practice
Abuse
Legal Safeguards for Nurses
Safe Harbor Laws
Professional Liability Insurance
Types of Coverage
Student Responsibilities
What Are Some Major Legal Issues in Nursing Practice?

Chapter 46
Canadian Healthcare Delivery System
Learning Outcomes
Meet Your Nursing Peer
History of the Canadian Healthcare Delivery System
Universal Hospital Insurance
Insurance for Physician's Services
The Development of the Healthcare Delivery System in Canada
Canada Health Act, 1984
Services Defined in the Canada Health Act.
Principles of the Canada Health Act
Governance and Management of the Canadian Health Care Delivery System
Federal Jurisdiction
Legislation
Aboriginal Health
Environmental Health
Health Products and Food
Population and Public Health
Provincial and Territorial Jurisdiction
Dispute Resolution
Legislation
Health Service Delivery System Legislation
Professional Legislation
Unionization of Healthcare Providers in Canada
Who Pays for Health Care?
Public Funding
Federal Government
Provincial/Territorial Governments
Private Funding
Private Insurance
Individual Payment
Factors Affecting Healthcare Delivery in Canada
Demographics
Aging Population
Aboriginal Population
Health Status of Aboriginal Peoples
Aboriginal Healthcare Providers
Technology
Telehealth
Electronic Health Record
Nursing Informatics
Health Human Resources in the Canadian Healthcare Delivery System
Nursing Professionals
Registered Nurses
Demographics
Supply
Employment
Education
Nurse Practitioners
Registered Psychiatric Nurses
Licensed or Registered Practical Nurses and Certified Nursing Assistants
Other Healthcare Professionals
Unregulated Healthcare Providers
The Components of the Canadian Healthcare Delivery System
Health Care Settings
Primary Health Care
Hospitals
Long-Term Care Facilities
Home Care
Public Health
Physicians' Offices
Occupational Health
Mental Health
Healthcare Agencies
Models of Care Provision
Program Management
Integrated Care Pathways
Nursing Models of Care
Healthcare Policy and Reform
Is the Health Care Delivery System Sustainable?
Nursing's Role in Policy Development
The Canadian Nurses Association
Canadian Federation of Nurses Unions
Nurses in Government
Individual Nurses' Roles in Policy Development
Health Care Trends and Issues
Quality Issues in the Health Care Delivery System
Foundational Work from Other Countries
National Steering Committee on Patient Safety
Saskatchewan Health Quality Council
National Health Council
Quality Workplaces
Canadian Institute of Health Information Report on Canada's Healthcare Providers
Canadian Nursing Advisory Committee
Aboriginal Health
Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada, 2002
Saskatchewan Commission on Medicare, 2001
Population Health
The Lalonde Report, 1974
Achieving health for All: A Framework for Health Promotion, 1986
Advisory Committee on Population Health
Self-Care
Alternative and Complementary Therapies
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Nursing.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

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