An introduction to aquatic toxicology / Mikko Nikinmaa.

By: Nikinmaa, Mikko
Material type: TextTextPublisher: Amsterdam ; Boston : Elsevier, c2014Description: xi, 240 p. col. ill. ; 24 cmISBN: 9780124115743Subject(s): Toxicology | Aquatic environment | Aquatic organisms and ecosystemsDDC classification: 574.5
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1. Introduction: What is aquatic toxicology?
1.1 The history of aquatic toxicology
1.2 The main present and future challenges
1.3 What is measured?

2. What causes aquatic contamination?
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Metals, metalloids, and organometallic compounds
2.3 Other inorganic compounds including factors causing eutrophication
2.4 organic compounds
2.5 Nanomaterials
etc.

3. principles of water purification
3.1 Principles of waste water treatment
3.2 Disinfection steps for generating household water
3.3 Sludge treatment

4. Sources and transport of chemicals in aquatic systems
4.1 The major sources of pollutants
4.2 Transport of pollutants in the environment

5. The most important experimental designs and organisms in aquatic toxicology
5.1 Model organisms used
5.2 Micro and mesocosms
5.3 Ecosystem manipulations
5.4 Bio monitoring

6. Factors affecting the bio-availability of chemicals
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Pharmacological bio-availability
6.3 Environmental bio-availability

7. Chemical uptake by organisms
7.1 Introduction
7.2 The uptake of ionic compounds
7.3 The uptake of lipophilic compounds

8. chemical distribution in organisms
8.1 Introduction: Distribution of chemicals in organisms
8.2 Storage sites of chemicals in organisms
8.3 Cellular distribution of chemicals

9. Detoxification
9.1 Bio-transformation of organic compounds
9.2 Detoxification by forming non-harmful complexes
9.3 Detoxification by compartmentalization

10. Excretion of compounds from organisms
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Cellular excretion
10.3 Excretion from gills
10.4 Excretion from the kidney and other excretory organs
10.5 Excretion in bile via the intestine
etc.

11. Effects on organisms
11.1 Omics in aquatic toxicology - ecotoxicogenomics
11.2 Geno toxicity
11.3 Oxidative stress
11.4 Effects on reproduction
11.5 Neurotoxicity
etc.

12. Bio indicators and biomarkers
12.1 Bio-indicators
12.2 Biomarkers

13. Interactions between chemicals
13.1 lack of interacting effects
13.2 Agonism
13.3 Antagonism
13.4 Has potentiation or inhibition of toxicity by chemical interactions been demonstrated in natural environments?

14. Acute and chronic toxicity
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Differentiating between general stress responses and specific acute responses to pollutants
14.3 time courses of toxicant responses
14.4 What signifies a chronic toxicant response

15. Interactions between natural environment factors and toxicity
15.1 Temperature
15.2 Oxygen
15.3 Salinity
15.4 Other abiotic stresses
15.5 Competition and predation

16 Effects of chemicals on aquatic populations
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Epidemiology
16.3 Demographic effects
16.4 Population genetics

17. Effects of chemicals on aquatic communities and ecosystems
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Community ecotoxicology
17.3 Ecosystem ecotoxicology

18. Modeling toxicity
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Risk assessment
18.3 models with lethality as an end point
18.4 Toxic kinetic modelling
18.5 QSAR
etc.


Glossary : p. 221 -232 . _ Index : p. 233 - 240.

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